Tarāwīḥ: Female Correcting a Male

If a female follows a male in tarāwīḥ and the male needs to be corrected, can the female correct the male? Before answering the question, we find in the Qur’an that Allāh has forbidden the pure wives of the Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) to speak in a soft... Continue Reading →

Tarāwīḥ: Imāmat of a Woman

The four mainstream school of thoughts; namely, the Ḥanafī’s, Malikī’s, Shafīʿīs and Ḥanbalī’s, are all unanimous on the impermissibility of a woman leading a man in ṣalāh. It a man does perform ṣalāh behind a woman, the ṣalāh will be deemed invalid. If a woman performs ṣalāh behind a sane and mature woman, the ṣalāh... Continue Reading →

Tarāwīḥ: Imāmat of a Child

Child refers to someone who has not yet reached puberty. The permissibility of a child leading another child in ṣalāh is agreed upon. As for a child leading an adult, the fuqahā (jurists) have differed in their opinions. According to the Ḥanafī’s, Malikī’s, and the preferred opinion of the Ḥanbalī’s, the ṣalāh of a person... Continue Reading →

Tarāwīḥ: Completing the Qur’an

According to the Hanbalī’s and the majority of the Ḥanafī’s (as mentioned in the narration of Ḥasan from Imām Abū Ḥanīfah), it is sunnah to complete the entire Qur’an in tarāwīḥ, so that the people may complete the entire Qur’an by listening to it. Then according to the Ḥanafī’s, it is sunnah to complete the... Continue Reading →

Tarāwīḥ: Congregation

Performing tarāwīḥ in congregation is substantiated and sunnah according to the majority of fuqahā (jurists). However, according to the Ḥanafī’s, performing tarāwīḥ in congregation is sunnah ala-l kifāyah (communal sunnah). Therefore, if all the people of a community omit congregating, they will all be blameworthy. On the other hand, if the entire community does not... Continue Reading →

Tarāwīḥ: Time Period & Making Up For It

According to the majority of fuqahā (jurists), the time for tarāwīḥ remains from ishā until subh sādiq (true dawn). It is sunnah to perform tarāwīḥ before witr. If tarāwīḥ is performed after witr, then the authoritative opinion of the Ḥanafī’s is that tarāwīḥ will still be valid. If tarāwīḥ is not performed before sunrise, it’s... Continue Reading →

Tarāwīḥ: Performing Sitting Down

Many prophetic narrations mention half the reward for a person who performs sunnah or nafl ṣalāh. As such, according to the most reliable opinion it is permissible to perform tarāwīḥ sitting down without an excuse is permissible (as standing in tarāwīḥ is not obligatory). However, performing while standing is mustaḥabb (recommended). If, due to an... Continue Reading →

Tarāwīḥ: Performing Four Rakaʿāt’s (units) or More with One Salām

According to the Ḥanafī’s, it is better to perform tarāwīḥ in sets of 2 rakaʿāt’s (units) with salām at the completion of every 2 rakaʿāt’s (units). If 4 rakaʿāt’s (units) are performed with one salām, while doing qa’dah (sitting) in the second rakaʿāt (unit), this will be also permissible according to the Ḥanafī’s. If one... Continue Reading →

Tarāwīḥ: Number of Rakaʿāt’s (units)

According to the majority of fuqahā (jurists) and the ummah, the number of rakaʿāt’s (units) for tarāwīḥ is 20. Similarly, 20 rakaʿāt’s (units) have been reported from the majority of the Sahabah (companions) and the Khulafā e-Rāshidīn (rightly guided caliphs). According to the Mālikī’s, tarāwīḥ is either 20 or 36 rakaʿāt’s (units). One has a... Continue Reading →

Tarāwīḥ: It’s Intention

According to the Shafīʿīs, Ḥanbalī’s, and some Ḥanafī’s, making a specific intention for “tarāwīḥ” or the “standing of ramadhan” is necessary. Consequently, a general intention (of performing ṣalāh) will not suffice. On the other hand, the majority of Ḥanafī’s have ruled that a general intention will suffice for all types of sunnah ṣalāh. One ought... Continue Reading →

Tarāwīḥ: It’s Ruling and Legal Status

The Fuqahā (jurists) are unanimous on the ruling of tarāwīḥ in the month of Ramadhan as ‘sunnah’. The Ḥanafī’s, Ḥanbalī’s and some Malikī’s have ruled it as sunnah mua’kaddah (emphasised). Tarāwīḥ is sunnah for men and women alike, and is from among the salient features of Islam. The Shafīʿīs opine that tarāwīḥ is sunnah but... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [61-64]

61. To feed others with the intention of showing off is a grave sin. Thus one should feed others with sincerity and for the pleasure of Allāh. Consequently, feeding only a little will result in immense reward. In contrast, feeding on a large scale with the intention of conceit or showing off will result in... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [59-60]

59. Ensure to eat from the area of the food which is closest and nearest to oneself, as there is barakah (blessing) in eating in this manner. It is narrated from ‘Amr bin Abī Salamah (r.a.) that the Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, "When you eat then say... Continue Reading →

Istinjā’ (Purification After the Call of Nature) [Detailed]

Definition of Istinjā’ In the Arabic language, ‘istinjā’, or ‘abstertion’ means to wipe and clean an impure area.In the terminology of sharīʿah (Sacred Law), istinjā’ is the process of cleaning those body parts from which impurities such as urine, faeces and the like is secreted, as it is not sufficient simply to perform wudu while... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [47-50]

47. Abstain from any speech or action which will cause disgust and revulsion to others around. 48. Avoid spitting or blowing the nose in the presence of others. If the need arises, it may be done whereby others are not inconvenienced. 49. If the need to sneeze arises, one should turn away from the food... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [43-46]

43. During meals, bones and other waste items should be kept together in one place. Scattering them in various places is discourteous and unmannerly, and a cause of difficulty for others. 44. While eating, the mind should be kept free from worrying and unnecessary thoughts. 45. Talking excessively and uncontrollably laughing while eating should be... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [40-42]

40. It is vital to ensure that no food goes to waste, whether it is one’s own food or someone else’s; rather, wasting another’s property entails double wrongdoing even if the owner permits it. Food should be saved from falling on the ground and that which has fallen, and is suitable for eating should be... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [37-39]

37. It is from the respect and etiquette of food that the area or dastarkhān (a tablecloth which is spread on the ground) in which it is placed, is clean. This will ensure that the food does not spoil and if any food falls, it will be suitable to pick up and eat. 38. The... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [28-32]

28. It is sunnah to eat with the hands. However, if someone eats with a spoon then there is no sin, though one will not acquire the virtue of eating with the hands, except that the food is difficult to eat with the hands, or there is an excuse for not using the hand (like... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [26-27]

26. Only the right hand should be used for eating. However, if the need arises to use the left hand, it may be used to assist the right hand; keeping the right hand as primary and the left as secondary. To eat with the left hand is highly detestable and the way of Shaytan. It... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [22-25]

22. The sunnah of reciting ‘bismillāh’ before eating is general for men, women, one in the state of major ritual impurity and a menstruating woman. 23. If one forgets to recite ‘bismillah’ before eating, then during the meal, whenever one remembers, one should recite, بِسْمِ اللَّهِ أَوَّلَهُ وَآخِرَهُ or بِسْمِ اللَّهِ فِي أَوَّلِهِ وَآخِرِهِ. This... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [20-21]

20. In most prophetic narrations, there is explicit mention of taking the name of Allāh with the words, ‘bismillāh’. It is narrated from Aisha (r.a.) that the Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “When one of you eats food, then let him say: ‘bismillah’. If he forgets in the... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [19]

19. It is sunnah to say ‘bismillāh’ before eating. It is a means of blessings and goodness, and a strong barrier for Shaytan from partaking of the food. Huḍayfah (r.a.) narrates that the Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “The devil considers the food upon which Allah’s name (bismillah)... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [17-18]

17. To wear shoes while eating is contradictory to the sunnah method. Though it may not be a sin, but it is similar to the style of those who are non-Muslim and that of the arrogant. As a result, one should abstain from making this a habit. However, in cases of necessity, one may eat... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [15-16]

15. It is desirable that one sits on the floor to eat while the food is placed on a clean cloth. It is preferred that one is level with the food, neither the food or the person eating should be higher or lower than one another. The normal practice of the Messenger of Allāh (may... Continue Reading →

Eating: Etiquettes & Supplications [14]

14. The Messenger of Allāh disliked to eat while leaning. Abū Juḥayfah (r.a.) narrates that the Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, "I do not eat my meals while leaning (against something).” (Bukhārī) Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Āṣ (r.a.) narrates that: “The Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him... Continue Reading →

Making Up the Two Rakaʿāt’s (units) Before Fajr

Until the time of a ṣalāh remains, the time for the performance of sunnah ṣalāh still remains. However, after the time of a ṣalāh elapses, the sunnah ṣalāh of that subsequent ṣalāh will not be made up. This is because prophetic narrations generally do not have mention and guidance of making up sunnah ṣalāh. Nevertheless,... Continue Reading →

Two Rakaʿāt’s (units) Before Fajr

There are two rakaʿāt’s (units) of ṣalāh which hold the status of sunnah mu’akaddah (emphasised) before the fajr ṣalāh which are greatly emphasised. It is narrated from Aisha (r.a.) that: “The Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) used to offer two light rakaʿāt’s (units) of ṣalāh between the adhān and... Continue Reading →

The Number of Sunnah Mu’akaddah (Emphasised) Rakaʿāt’s [Concise]

The fuqahā (jurists) have differed in their opinion on the number of rakaʿāt’s (units) which hold the status of sunnah mu’akaddah (emphasised) during the day and night. Some have suggested 10 rakaʿāt’s (units) which hold the status of sunnah mu’akaddah (emphasised). These are: 2 before the fajr ṣalāh, 2 before the zuhr ṣalāh, 2 after... Continue Reading →

Īṣāl e-Thawāb (Donating Reward) – Farḍ & Wājib Acts

Question: Apart from voluntary actions, is it permissible to donate the reward of farḍ & wājib acts? Answer: There is no doubt in the permissibility of īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward) for optional deeds. Whether farḍ & wājib acts are permissible to donate? The scholars have differed in their opinions. However, many have opined towards its... Continue Reading →

Īṣāl e-Thawāb (Donating Reward) – For Rasūlullāh ‎ﷺ

Question: Is it correct to donate reward to Rasūlullāh ‎ﷺ when his status is highly elevated and he is not in need of īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward)? Answer: In some cases the objective of īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward) is the elevation of status for another person, and sometimes to repay favours which another has conferred... Continue Reading →

Īṣāl e-Thawāb (Donating Reward) – Full Reward or Shared?

Question: When doing īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward) to multiple individuals, will the reward be split among them, or will they receive the full reward? Answer: Whether the intended individuals receive the reward in full or it is divided, the scholars have both opinions in this regard. The vast mercy and compassion of Allāh demands that... Continue Reading →

Īṣāl e-Thawāb (Donating Reward) – For Multiple People

Question: Is īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward) valid to multiple people? Answer: It is permissible to donate reward to multiple people, and there is no objection in this; rather, it is more virtuous to donate reward to all Muslims. Consequently, Rasūlullāh ‎ﷺ sacrificed a ram on behalf of the entire ummah and donated it’s reward to... Continue Reading →

Īṣāl e-Thawāb (Donating Reward) – It’s Method

Question: Some individuals hold the belief that in order for īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward) to occur, a pious individual must be made a medium. What is the method of īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward) and can one donate reward himself? Answer: The method of īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward) is fairly easy. While doing a good action... Continue Reading →

Īṣāl e-Thawāb (Donating Reward) – For the Living & the Dead

Question: Is īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward) valid for the living and dead, or only the dead? Answer: Īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward) is not prescribed only for the dead, it may be done even for living Muslims. The reason is īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward) is done of that action for which the doer receives reward, and... Continue Reading →

Īṣāl e-Thawāb (Donating Reward) – It’s Benefits

Question: When rewards are donated to another Muslim, how do they benefit? Answer: When reward is donated to a Muslim, they receive the reward of the good action, and good actions result in the lessening of punishment and elevation in status. Hence, by donating rewards to a deceased Muslim who is being punished, their punishment... Continue Reading →

The Fiqh of Performing Salah on a Chair [With Summary]

A must-read for ʿulamā and those who use a chair when performing ṣalāh. In recent times, we have seen a rise in the use of chairs in the masājid and as a result the masājid have been flooded with chairs. Many have resorted to its use for insignificant and trivial reasons; reasons many fuqahā (jurists)... Continue Reading →

The Fiqh of Menstruation [Basics of Hayd]

Definition of Ḥayḍ (Menstruation) • In the terminology of sharīʿah (Islamic Law), ḥayḍ (menstruation) is the periodical discharge of blood that a female of ‘child bearing age’ releases naturally from her womb each month. Blood released due to pregnancy or an illness or by a woman in her menopause is not classed as ḥayḍ (menstruation).... Continue Reading →

The Boundary of the Beard (Detailed)

The beard is known as ‘Liḥyah’ in the Arabic language. In Arabic, the words laḥyun and liḥyun refer to the jawbone. The jawbone consists of a movable lower jaw (mandible) and fixed upper jaw (maxilla). For this reason, the hair which grows on these two bones is known as liḥyah, also known as the jawbone.... Continue Reading →

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